Harvest on time; Because it is important?
The biological cycle of rice (days from sowing to harvest) varies from 95 days (very early varieties) to almost 250 days (very late varieties). Medium maturing varieties can be harvested 120-150 days after sowing. We can know that the beans are ready to be harvested when they start to turn yellow and become hard.
It is very important to harvest rice crops on time to maximize grain quality and yields. If we harvest too early, the harvested grains will be immature and as a result will have poor recovery from grinding and will break easily. On the other hand, when crops are harvested late, the grain can fall off the panicle and cause large losses. As a general rule, the harvest can only start when the beans are 80-85% ripe or golden yellow.
Harvesting can be done manually or mechanically. In manual harvesting, workers harvest rice plants from paddy fields using sharp knives. Then they carefully clean them and separate the damaged ones. Mechanical harvesting can be done using machines that combine all operations, such as cutting, threshing and cleaning.
After harvesting, rice seeds should normally be stored in silos and artificially dried, so that the moisture content of the seed can be reduced to 13-14%.
Rice Drying Process
Drying is an important procedure to reduce grain moisture. After harvest, the beans normally contain approximately 25% moisture. If we leave them without doing anything, this can lead to discoloration of the grain and possible pest attacks. For this reason, before storing the grains, in most cases, farmers dry the grains. There are two ways of drying. Traditional and mechanical methods. In most cases, it is essential to dry the beans within 24 hours of harvest.
Due to its low and almost zero cost, traditional drying is preferred and practiced in many countries. We can dry the rice grain by exposing it to sunlight. Workers can spread the grains onto carpets or sidewalks until dry.
This method is based on removing the water from the beans with hot air. This works and can be done with different types of dryers.
The average yield of rice (seeds) per hectare is 3 to 6 tons. In some countries such as Australia and Egypt, the yield can increase to 10 to 12 tons or more per hectare (1 ton = 1000 kg = 2200 lbs and 1 hectare = 2.47 acres = 10,000 square meters). Of course, experienced farmers can achieve such high yields after several years of practice.
The cultivation of rice by transplantation, traditionally, remains most of its biological cycle with flooding and shows a high adaptability to these conditions, consequently its production consumes a large amount of water, although less than in cultivation by direct seeding. This research was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effect of irrigation water management on the agricultural and industrial yield of rice by transplant technology. Plants that remained in flooded conditions throughout their cycle and plants that were subjected to suspension of the water sheet for a period of 15 days at three different moments of the tillering stage were evaluated. The suspension of the water sheet increased agricultural yield between 16 and 32%, with respect to the flooded control and the industrial yield was 67%, on average. The highest percentages of whole grains were achieved in the treatments subjected to suspension of the sheet, achieving the best results with the suspension at 30 DDT. This management allowed a water saving of approximately 1,931.4 m3 ha -1 , with respect to the flooded treatment. The saved water could increase the irrigated area by 11.19% for rice cultivation.
Rice Pests and Diseases
Every year, more than a third of rice production is lost due to paddy cutting machine price in andhra pradesh. It’s important to know our crop enemies and form an environmentally friendly approach to dealing with them. We can consult a local licensed professional to properly control rice pests and diseases. The most common pests and diseases of rice are listed below.
- Fulgoforms and Grasshoppers ; fulgoforms ( Delphacidae ) often attack rice stalks. In contrast, grasshoppers ( Cicadellidae ) attack the aerial parts of the plant. The attacked plants have a dark brown color as if they had been burned.
- Defoliators ; many insects ( Lepidoptera , Orthoptera and Coleoptera ) visit the rice leaves to feed.
- Insects that attack the grains ; Oebalus pugnax , known as the rice stench bug, attacks immature plants and feeds on their grain.
- Bacterial blight ; this disease is caused by Xanthomonas oryzae . It appears in both temperate and tropical climates, with high levels of humidity. It is mainly responsible for the yellowing of the leaves.
- Bacterial leaf streak ; this disease is caused by Xanthomonas oryzae. It can be found on damaged and unhealthy plants in areas with high humidity levels. It is responsible for the drying and browning of the leaves.
- Brown stain ; it is a fungal disease that mainly infects the leaves and the panicle. Large brown spots begin to spread all over the leaves. It is one of the most damaging rice diseases and occurs frequently in fields with high humidity.
The best way to control these pests and diseases is prevention. Rice producers should consider the following measures.
- Proper cleaning of the field and the equipment used in the paddy fields is necessary between seasons.
- Use of certified seeds.
- Avoid the excessive application of fertilizers.
- In many cases, pesticide application is not allowed within 40 days of planting (check with your local licensed agronomist).
- Adequate storage of grains. In many cases, the beans are stored in containers with 13-14% humidity.